He had suffered a stroke after retiring on the night of March 1—2, but this was not perceived until the morning because of his concern for personal security. The top leadership gathered around his bedside, but he could only move his little finger. Others in the entourage were more circumspect. They found themselves in a predicament:
And within the last decade or two, archaeologists have shown us that there were environmental problems underlying many of these past collapses. But there were also plenty of places in the world where societies have been developing for thousands of years without any sign of a major collapse, such as Japan, Java, Tonga and Tikopea.
So evidently, societies in some areas are more fragile than in other areas. How can we understand what makes some societies more fragile than other societies? The problem is obviously relevant to our situation today, because today as well, there are some societies that have already collapsed, such as Somalia and Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia.
There are also societies today that may be close to collapse, such as Nepal, Indonesia and Columbia.
What is there that we can learn from the past that would help us avoid declining or collapsing in the way that so many past societies have? Obviously the answer to this question is not going to be a single factor.
This is a complex subject. But how can we make sense out of the complexities of this subject? This is a European society with literate records, so we know a good deal about the people and their motivation.
In AD Vikings went out to Greenland, settled Greenland, and around they died out — the society collapsed, and every one of them ended up dead. Why did they all end up dead?
Well, in my five-point framework, the first item on the framework is to look for human impacts on the environment: And in the case of the Viking Norse, the Vikings inadvertently caused soil erosion and deforestation, which was a particular problem for them because they required forests to make charcoal, to make iron.
So they ended up an Iron Age European society, virtually unable to make their own iron. A second item on my checklist is climate change. Climate can get warmer or colder or dryer or wetter.
In the case of the Vikings — in Greenland, the climate got colder in the late s, and especially in the s. The third thing on my checklist is relations with neighboring friendly societies that may prop up a society. And if that friendly support is pulled away, that may make a society more likely to collapse.
In the case of the Greenland Norse, they had trade with the mother country — Norway — and that trade dwindled: The fourth item on my checklist is relations with hostile societies. In the case of Norse Greenland, the hostiles were the Inuit — the Eskimos sharing Greenland — with whom the Norse got off to bad relationships.
And we know that the Inuit killed the Norse and, probably of greater importance, may have blocked access to the outer fjords, on which the Norse depended for seals at a critical time of the year.
|BBC - History - World Wars: Reform, Coup and Collapse: The End of the Soviet State||Why did it collapse?|
|The Origins and Evolution of the Soviet State||The Russian Revolution Late tsarist Russia Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in would culminate in revolution. Its causes were not so much economic or social as political and cultural.|
And then finally, the fifth item on my checklist is the political, economic, social and cultural factors in the society that make it more or less likely that the society will perceive and solve its environmental problems. In the case of the Greenland Norse, cultural factors that made it difficult for them to solve their problems were: What about a society today?
And Montana, at first sight, seems like the most pristine environment in the United States. But scratch the surface, and Montana suffers from serious problems.
Going through the same checklist: Yes, acute in Montana. Toxic problems from mine waste have caused damage of billions of dollars. Problems from weeds, weed control, cost Montana nearly million dollars a year. Montana has lost agricultural areas from salinization, problems of forest management, problems of forest fires.
Second item on my checklist:There were many factors that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union, including political policies, economics, defense spending, and the Chernobyl nuclear . Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse?: Understanding Historical Change [Robert Strayer] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Taking the Soviet collapse - the most cataclysmic event of the recent past - as a case study, this text engages students in the exercise of historical analysis. Feb 17, · Professor Archie Brown explains the reasons behind the dramatic collapse of the Soviet Union, and examines how such an authoritarian system could be dismantled peacefully.
The speed with which the. Causes of Soviet Collapse: Stagnating Economy: The Soviet Union had grown to a size large enough to the point where it became cumbersome to continue state planning. The massive and intricate Soviet economy became too large to manage by state plan.
Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse? As one of the super powers in the past, it is highly interesting to know the Soviet Union collapsed. It was considered as the legitimate successor of the Russian Empire.
Throughout the world, it was then famous for the advanced scientific research that it conducted on weaponry and space technology. More.
Conventional wisdom discounting a collapse U.S. analysts. Predictions of the Soviet Union's impending demise were discounted by many Western academic specialists, and had little impact on mainstream Sovietology. For example, Amalrik's book "was welcomed as a piece of brilliant literature in the West" but "virtually no one tended to take it at .