Postdoctoral research may be required for obtaining a tenure-track faculty position, especially at research-oriented institutions. Post-doctoral appointments that were traditionally optional have become mandatory in some fields as the degree of competition for tenure-track positions in academia has significantly increased over previous decades. In fact, the small supply of the professional positions in academia compared to the growing number of postdoctoral researchers makes it difficult to find tenure-track positions. There are no comprehensive data of international postdoctoral researchers in the US because of the less-organized survey and the difficulty in counting international postdoctoral researchers.

Bibliography Definition Quantitative methods emphasize objective measurements and the statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical data using computational techniques.

Quantitative research focuses on gathering numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a particular phenomenon. The Practice of Social Research. Wadsworth Cengage, ; Muijs, Daniel.

Characteristics of Quantitative Research Your goal in conducting quantitative research study is to determine the relationship between one thing [an independent variable] and another [a dependent or outcome variable] within a population. Quantitative research designs are either descriptive [subjects usually measured once] or experimental [subjects measured before and after a treatment].

A descriptive study establishes only associations between variables; an experimental study establishes causality. Quantitative research deals in numbers, logic, and an objective stance. Quantitative research focuses on numeric and unchanging data and detailed, convergent reasoning rather than divergent reasoning [i.

Its main characteristics are: The data is usually gathered using structured research instruments. The results are based on larger sample sizes that are representative of the population.

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The research study can usually be replicated or repeated, given its high reliability. Researcher has a clearly defined research question to which objective answers are sought.

All aspects of the study are carefully designed before data is collected. Data are in the form of numbers and statistics, often arranged in tables, charts, figures, or other non-textual forms.

Project can be used to generalize concepts more widely, predict future results, or investigate causal relationships. Researcher uses tools, such as questionnaires or computer software, to collect numerical data. The overarching aim of a quantitative research study is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed.

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods: Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating.

Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section. Report unanticipated events that occurred during your data collection. Explain how the actual analysis differs from the planned analysis. Explain your handling of missing data and why any missing data does not undermine the validity of your analysis.

Explain the techniques you used to "clean" your data set. Choose a minimally sufficient statistical procedure; provide a rationale for its use and a reference for it.

Specify any computer programs used. Describe the assumptions for each procedure and the steps you took to ensure that they were not violated. When using inferential statistics, provide the descriptive statistics, confidence intervals, and sample sizes for each variable as well as the value of the test statistic, its direction, the degrees of freedom, and the significance level [report the actual p value].

Avoid inferring causality, particularly in nonrandomized designs or without further experimentation. Use tables to provide exact values; use figures to convey global effects. Keep figures small in size; include graphic representations of confidence intervals whenever possible.

Always tell the reader what to look for in tables and figures. When using pre-existing statistical data gathered and made available by anyone other than yourself [e.

Wadsworth Cengage, ; Brians, Craig Leonard et al. Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. Longman, ; McNabb, David E. Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. Sharpe, ; Quantitative Research Methods. Colorado State University; Singh, Kultar. Quantitative Social Research Methods.You should give an overview of your studies and interest others to go on reading.

A research paper is usually the first step for students to get funding for their project, so it is crucial to create a thoughtful and deep paper.

RESPECT discussion paper by Ursula Huws, 15 June 1 Towards a Definition of Socio-Economic Research for the RESPECT Project A draft working paper by Ursula Huws, RESPECT Project Director.

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E-learning is part of the new dynamic that characterises educational systems at the start of the 21st century. Like society, the concept of e-learning is subject to constant change.

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