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Phonograph cylinder recording of Siamese Thai musicians visiting Berlin, Germany in Problems playing this file? On April 30,French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris fully explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone.
Recording of Bell's voice on a wax disc inidentified in [more details] Emile Berliner with disc record gramophone The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone recordgenerally credited to Emile Berliner and commercially introduced in the United States inthough others voice reel editing services demonstrated similar disk apparatus earlier, most notably Alexander Graham Bell in Sales of the gramophone record overtook the cylinder ca.
Edison, who was the main producer of cylinders, created the Edison Disc Record in an attempt to regain his market. In various permutations, the audio disc format became the primary medium for consumer sound recordings until the end of the 20th century, and the double-sided 78 rpm shellac disc was the standard consumer music format from the early s to the late s.
Although there was no universally accepted speed, and various companies offered discs that played at several different speeds, the major recording companies eventually settled on a de facto industry standard of nominally 78 revolutions per minute, though the actual speed differed between America and the rest of the world.
The specified speed was The difference in speeds was due to the difference in the cycle frequencies of the AC electricity that powered the stroboscopes used to calibrate recording lathes and turntables. Discs were made of shellac or similar brittle plastic-like materials, played with needles made from a variety of materials including mild steel, thorn, and even sapphire.
Discs had a distinctly limited playing life that varied depending on how they were produced. Earlier, purely acoustic methods of recording had limited sensitivity and frequency range.
Mid-frequency range notes could be recorded, but very low and very high frequencies could not. Instruments such as the violin were difficult to transfer to disc. One technique to deal with this involved using a Stroh violin to which was fitted a conical horn connected to a diaphragm that vibrated due to the violin bridge.
The horn was no longer needed once electrical recording was developed. The short-playing but convenient 7-inch 45 rpm microgroove vinyl single was introduced by RCA Victor in In the US and most developed countries, the two new vinyl formats completely replaced 78 rpm shellac discs by the end of the s, but in some corners of the world, the "78" lingered on far into the s.
Vinyl was much more expensive than shellac, one of the several factors that made its use for 78 rpm records very unusual, but with a long-playing disc the added cost was acceptable and the compact "45" format required very little material.
Vinyl offered improved performance, both in stamping and in playback. If played with a good diamond stylus mounted in a lightweight pickup on a well-adjusted tonearm, it was long-lasting.
If protected from dust, scuffs and scratches there was very little noise. Vinyl records were, over-optimistically, advertised as "unbreakable". They were not, but they were much less fragile than shellac, which had itself once been touted as "unbreakable" compared to wax cylinders.
Electrical recording[ edit ] RCA, a classic ribbon microphone introduced in Similar units were widely used for recording and broadcasting in the s and are occasionally still used today. Between the invention of the phonograph in and the first commercial digital recordings in the early s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording, in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus.
This innovation eliminated the "horn sound" resonances characteristic of the acoustical process, produced clearer and more full-bodied recordings by greatly extending the useful range of audio frequencies, and allowed previously unrecordable distant and feeble sounds to be captured.
Sound recording began as a purely mechanical process. Except for a few crude telephone-based recording devices with no means of amplification, such as the Telegraphone it remained so until the s when several radio-related developments in electronics converged to revolutionize the recording process.
These included improved microphones and auxiliary devices such as electronic filters, all dependent on electronic amplification to be of practical use in recording.
InLee De Forest invented the Audion triode vacuum tube, an electronic valve that could amplify weak electrical signals.
Byit was in use in long-distance telephone circuits that made conversations between New York and San Francisco practical.
Refined versions of this tube were the basis of all electronic sound systems until the commercial introduction of the first transistor -based audio devices in the mids. During World War I, engineers in the United States and Great Britain worked on ways to record and reproduce, among other things, the sound of a German U-boat for training purposes.
Acoustical recording methods of the time could not reproduce the sounds accurately. The earliest results were not promising. The first electrical recording issued to the public, with little fanfare, was of November 11, funeral services for The Unknown Warrior in Westminster AbbeyLondon.
The recording engineers used microphones of the type used in contemporary telephones. Four were discreetly set up in the abbey and wired to recording equipment in a vehicle outside.
Although electronic amplification was used, the audio was weak and unclear. The procedure did, however, produce a recording that would otherwise not have been possible in those circumstances. For several years, this little-noted disc remained the only issued electrical recording.Editing Packages See below for pricing and packages.
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