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Sexual Harassment Essay Sexual Harassment Essay Sexual harassment in the workplace has existed since men and women started working. Yet the term sexual harassment and the problem of sexual harassment were not legally and publicly recognized until the s in the United States and later in other countries.
Historical accounts of sexual harassment in shipyards, factories, and department stores demonstrate that women and men experienced various forms of unwanted sexual behaviors at work, but there was no name for it nor any possibility of legal recourse.
When the Civil Rights Act was passed by the U. Congress, including protections for sex discrimination in Title VII, the door was opened for the creation of sexual harassment as a legal wrong.
In the s, sexual harassment complaints started to appear in the legal arena. National surveys of sexual harassment estimate that approximately percent of women will experience sexual harassment at work in their lifetimes.
Behind these statistics is an enduring conundrum: Surveys show that people may experience behaviors that are legitimate forms of sexual harassment, but they may not label these behaviors as such. These statistics highlight some of the important issues around sexual harassment. First, what is sexual harassment?
Second, why do so many people who experience sexual behaviors at work not define these experiences as sexual harassment? Defining Sexual Harassment Emerging from the groundbreaking work of legal scholar Catherine MacKinnon, sexual harassment in the United States is viewed as a form of sex discrimination.
Legally, two types of behavior comprise sexual harassment: Quid pro quo harassment involves sexual threats or bribery that are made a condition of employment or used as the basis for employment decisions. Supreme Court decision in Meritor v. To be considered hostile environment harassment, it must be established that there was a single serious incident or a pattern of usually less severe behaviors occurring over time.
Since the U. Supreme Court decision in Harris v. Some lower court decisions acknowledge that sexual harassment is a gendered phenomenon, with women more likely to experience harassment and to be adversely affected by it.
On the surface, the legal definition of sexual harassment appears straightforward, with its focus on men using their power over women to satisfy their sexual desires. Yet, this focus has limited what can be claimed as sexual harassment. Critics identify several shortcomings in the current legal framework of sexual harassment.
First, the legal definition of sexual harassment overemphasizes heterosexual sexual acts and sexual desire at the expense of gender-based harassment. Research shows that most sexual harassment that occurs is hostile environment harassment that involves the denigration of women and men.
This means that at its core, sexual harassment is often not about sexual desire but about letting women and men know they are not welcome in certain workplaces and that they are not respected members of the work group.
Second, the founders of sexual harassment law in the United States considered the sexual harassment of men to be a rare event. Yet does this mean that men cannot experience sexual harassment? Research that takes this question seriously shows that men do experience some forms of sexual harassment and identify some behaviors as harassment that are not identified by women.
These behaviors include those perpetuated by women, such as verbal comments that negatively stereotype men e. Due to the privileging of heterosexual masculinity, men are likely to be harassed when they step outside the traditional male role or are seen as less masculine compared to their peers.
Sexual harassment of men, just like much of the sexual harassment of women, is not about sexual desire. Rather it most often occurs when a group or individual asserts power over those who violate traditional gender roles. Inthe U. Supreme Court in the Oncale case ruled for the first time that same-sex harassment between men can be sex discrimination.
Because of the limits to the legal definition, some social scientists prefer to define harassment more broadly. Psychologist Louise Fitzgerald and colleagues have developed a three-tiered measure of sexual harassment, the Sexual Experiences Questionnaire:Examples of sexual harassment include, but are not limited to, the following, when they occur within the circumstances described in Section (3) above: (a) use of gender-based verbal or written language offensive or degrading to a person of that gender, whether or not the content is sexual;.
College Links College Reviews College Essays College Sexual Harrasment: The Hidden Truth MAG. When a female does not takeaction against sexual harassment, not only does it negatively.
Sexual harassment in a workplace involves things like sexual favors in such a way that its submission is regarded as explicitly or even implicitly a form of employment those results in intimidating or harsh working environment for the employees (Zapf, & Einarsen, ).
Sexual Harassment in the Workplace Sexual Harassment is a form of sex discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of The legal definition of sexual harassment is unwelcome verbal, visual, or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is severe or pervasive and affects working conditions or creates a hostile work environment.
Conduct is not sexual harassment .
Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is any unwanted action or language of a sexual nature. Sexual harassment may include jokes, comments, and or sexual advances, also asks for sexual favors, that make's you feel uncomfortable is sexual harassment.
Causes And Impacts Of Sexual Harassment Sociology Essay. Print Reference this. Disclaimer: may not be tolerable in others. Research suggests that sexual harassment is not just a problem in the UK; in surveys were conducted on Women in the U.S Fire and Rescue Service.
Female staff were asked about their experiences with sexual.