It was one of the deadliest conflicts in history and precipitated major political changes, including the Revolutions of —in many of the nations involved. Unresolved rivalries at the end of the conflict contributed to the start of World War II about twenty years later.
When war broke out with Germany Pre world war 1 architecture the last major European Conflict that Britain had experienced had been almost exactly a hundred years before.
In fact since there had been no war between major European Powers and so nobody quite knew what this new war would be like. Those with imagination and responsibility for the preparations imagined troops marching to a series of great set piece battles where the outcome would be rapidly decided.
Mustering the troops for this new conflict also followed traditional lines. During the Crimean war the government had been forced to rely on the historic county and town militias to boost regular troops in the field.
So in a new Volunteer Rife Corps was established to defend coastal towns and harass an invading enemy. Afterthese bands became increasingly centralised and more closely aligned with the regular army, until when they were reconstituted as the Territorial Army. From the s these volunteer bands built themselves drill halls in which to train.
In all as many as 1, of these structures were built across England, normally paid for by their members of through local fundraising. The most obvious characteristic of these buildings was their large central halls which were normally around ft long and perhaps ft wide used for marching and weapons practice.
Some of the larger ones had a library or billiard room attached for social occasions and many had an attached house where a caretaker would live. The Tudor Military style was popular and felt to be appropriate to many of these buildings. It was completed in to the design of Goddard and Son.
Many were much smaller such as this now demolished red brick hall in Stourbridge, Worcestershire. All these men had to receive basic training before being sent abroad, and it soon became clear that preparation in one particular type of combat was paramount: Several systems of practice trenches survive, although generally they can only be seen from the air.
They were normally built in existing military training areas such as Salisbury Plain as seen here at Beacon Hill, Bulford.
Or sometimes on other government land. Many of these places turned into huge encampments. Many thousands of men had to be accommodated at these sites, some like these men from a London Territorial regiment were billeted in bell tents like this.
The photograph is from at larkhill near Stonehenge. Later thousands of tin huts were built such as these also at larkhill, in In the earliest stages of the war, the Imperial German Navy tried to lure the British Navy into destructive battle by bombarding the British coast.
Here 86 people were killed and over injured: The Liberal government was brought down, and the new coalition passed an Act which brought all armaments manufacture under a Ministry of Munitions. By this managed directly government factories, and supervised 20, more. Rotherwas was one of the new National Factories: Here is one of the picric acid stores — a very rare survival as most WWI Factories have now gone.
As industrial production stepped up, and as ever-more men were combed out for active service, almostwomen became munitioneers at Rotherwas, and here at Woolwich Arsenal filling shells and manufacturing war-hardware.
Here in the English Heritage Archive in Swindon is a rare photograph showing shell-filling in at the Cunard works in Birkenhead. The work was relatively well paid, but risky; many women were slowly poisoned by the chemicals they worked with, and others died in explosions.
The biggest, inat a factory at Faversham, killed workers who lie in a mass grave, now as listed structure. Factories were not just taken over willy-nilly; generally particular tasks were allocated to areas where particular skills had grown up.
Prosecuting the war was, of course, cripplingly expensive, and the government appealed to the public, as a patriotic duty, to take out war savings and bonds. Many went for scrap in the Second World War, and today only that at Ashford, in Kent, survives — probably because it was used as an electricity sub-station from One reason why tanks were used in this way was presumably because they were novel, and would draw crowds.
Another demonstration, not least to the civilian population, that this was a war which was being fought in an entirely new way, came with air raids. England became the first country in the world to sustain major civilian damage from aerial bombardment. The first Zeppelin raids, on the east coast and then London, took place in Januaryand continued into the summer: Here is bomb damage in Hull.
Anti-aircraft defences were almost wholly ineffectual, and this led to a shake-up in The final raid came on the night of 19 May when 41 planes attacked London; 72 bombs were dropped, but six planes were brought down by air defences.The First World War had a devastating effect on Britain.
Human and economic loss was accompanied by a loss of confidence and direction. This lecture looks at both the cultural effects of the War and its architectural impact.
Both saw a struggle to reconcile a rejection of the pre-war world and a longing for it.
Homes built between and -- before World War II -- were dubbed pre-war. At the time, houses started changing, shifting from functional farmhouses and Victorian mansions, to a happy medium of two-storied houses and a basement.
Jul 21, · Art forever changed by World War I From the fiction of Hemingway to the savagely critical paintings of Otto Dix, WWI reshaped the notion of art, just as it forever altered the perception of war. July 21, | By Reed Johnson, Los Angeles Times. Pre World War 1 Architecture. Topics: Middle Ages, World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centred in Europe that .
The political situation in Europe prior to World War I was one of the multiple developing powers jockeying for the control of Europe's smaller powers. World War 1: A Short Timeline Pre . 1 - Pre World War 1 Architecture Essay introduction.) The Pirenne Thesis The Pirenne Thesis was proposed by Henri Pierenne while he was a prisoner of war during WW1.) The Pirenne Thesis The Pirenne Thesis was proposed by Henri Pierenne while he was a prisoner of war during WW1.