Why would NIPD for fetal sex determination be needed? NIPD for fetal sex determination would be offered to couples if: CAH is an autosomal recessive condition — view this video animation explaining autosomal recessive inheritance.
Hamid Reza Khorram Khorshid, Fetal sex determination. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications.
With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA cffDNA in plasma of pregnant women, access to genetic material of the fetus had become possible to determine early gender of a fetus in pregnancies at the risk of X-linked genetic conditions instead of applying invasive methods.
Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the Y chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses.
Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at 6th to 10th weeks of gestation and then the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. At the end, all the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns. In 40 out of 42 born baby boys, the relevant gene sequences were identified and Non-invasive early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA could be employed as a pre-test in the shortest possible time and with a high reliability to avoid applying invasive methods in cases where a fetus is at the risk of genetic diseases.
Fetus, Genetic material, Prenatal diagnosis, Sex determination Introduction Traditionally, early fetal gender determination has been performed using invasive techniques, such as chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis. Also, reliable determination of fetal sex by means of ultrasonography cannot be done in the first trimester because of uncompleted development of the external genitalia 2.
· Other sonographic landmarks, such as the fetal scrotum, the midline raphe of the penis, the labial lines, the uterus, the descended testis, and the direction and origin of the fetal micturition jet in males may contribute to the correct determination of fetal caninariojana.com /Sonographic_Fetal_Sex_Determination_aspx. · We hope that non-invasive fetal gender determination using cffDNAs in maternal plasma would allow us to obtain an early knowledge of the fetal sex and adding to timely clinical management. This could reduce the need for invasive procedures in pregnant women carrying an X caninariojana.com NIPD for fetal sex determination would be offered to couples if: The mother is a carrier of an altered gene for a serious X-linked condition – view this video animation explaining X-linked inheritance. Both parents are carriers of alterations for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)caninariojana.com
Therefore, more efforts have been spent in developing prenatal diagnostic procedures that do not constitute a risk for the fetus, based on the analysis of fetal genetic material obtained from the fetal cells circulating in maternal blood 34. Substantial advances have been made in the enrichment and isolation of fetal cells for analysis, but most techniques are time-consuming or require expensive equipment.
In addition, these cells are very rare in maternal plasma 1 fetal cell per maternal cells and they are unlikely to persist after delivery, including subsequent pregnancies 56.
Further studies on tumour derived DNAs in the plasma of cancer patients open up the possibility that fetal DNA which originated from apoptotic trophoblasts of the placenta, may also be found in maternal plasma 78.
Finally with the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA cffDNA fragments in the plasma of pregnant women carrying male fetus inreliable and accurate diagnosis became reality 9. More studies revealed that the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma was found to be much higher than that present in the cellular fraction Therefore, it can be distinguished from the maternal DNA by size separation These findings have provided the opportunity to perform reliable genetic testing on cffDNA extracted from the maternal plasma at an early stage in pregnancy without interference from previous pregnancies for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of paternally inherited disorders as well as fetal gender determination.
Therefore, the only way to identify these sequences is through male-bearing pregnancies In this study, early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA can be considered as a non-invasive pre-test to determine whether invasive prenatal diagnosis should be performed on a fetus having a risk of X-linked disorders or not.
Thus, invasive procedures can be avoided when the fetus is known to be female at an early gestational age, while prenatal diagnosis might be performed only for male fetuses. To achieve this goal, the following study using cffDNA in maternal plasma was performed on pregnant women during their 6th th weeks of pregnancy to obtain the required sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for a non-invasive prenatal test.
Materials and Methods Sample collection Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at their 6th to 10th weeks of gestation who were referred to Avicenna Infertility Clinic in Tehran, Iran during Also in this study, five non-pregnant women and five men were considered as a negative and positive control.
Before blood sampling, signed consent forms were obtained from all participants and the protocol of the study was approved by the ethics committee of Avicenna research institute.
Also, sequence of single copy SRY gene was used as an internal control of gender determination. All the pairs of primers were designed by using the Primer3 and Gene Runner software Table 1.Find out how NIPD determines the sex of the fetus, and why this procedure might be offered to a patient.
Non-invasive prenatal determination of fetal sex using cell-free fetal DNA provides an alternative to invasive techniques for some heritable disorders. New research revealed that widely available blood tests that predict gender are extremely caninariojana.com · Prenatal sex discernment is the prenatal testing for discerning the sex of a fetus before caninariojana.coms · Applications · Legal status · Referencescaninariojana.com · Noninvasive prenatal determination of fetal sex could provide an important alternative to invasive cytogenetic determination, which is currently the gold standard for ambiguous genitalia, X-linked conditions, and single-gene disorders such as congenital adrenal caninariojana.com://caninariojana.com Ampliﬁcation of fetal DNA from maternal plasma by real-time quantitative PCR is a promising method for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy.
However, further studies are necessary before caninariojana.com · Equine fetal sex determination is a tool in equine reproductive medicine which becomes more important and interesting for breeders in order to plan the mare s future breeding caninariojana.com://caninariojana.com