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There are three types of industries, 1.
Major or heavy or large scale industries, 2. Small-scale industries and 3. Village or cottage industries. In the first two categories, machinery is used and less number of men is employed.
The third category is mostly rural based and carried on by men individually. For example, the potter, the black smith, the gold-smith, the tailor, the weaver, and the carpenter could all be considered as those working in cottage industries.
India was very famous for cottage industries in the past. Each village or a group of villages had these artisans. The raw material required for them was available in villages.
The skill required was passed on from father to son for generations. It was the basis for caste system. On account of continued involvement of the family members in the industry they became specialists and did their work with excellence. Prior to the British, India was conquered by many and they all came and settled in India and encouraged cottage industries.
In the case of British they came here as traders and later became rulers. They took away all the raw material from India, and dumped finished goods on India.
They killed the indigenous cottage industries. India was famous for weaving handloom clothes in cotton and silk.
Its people were also famous for dyeing and printing in works like Kalamkari. Similarly, there were famous goldsmiths and were making good jewellery. The British not only took away the raw material but they also imposed the influence of western industrialization on India.
The establishment of cotton mills, though small in number, deprived the traditional weavers of their occupation. The advancements in science and technology, the invention of plastic and synthetic fibers and the use of these to make household and agricultural tools deprived the potters, blacksmiths, and carpenters of their professions.
English education which gave better job opportunities and which also was a better status symbol attracted the traditional artisans to leave their ancestral occupations and run after clerical jobs. The establishment of industries resulted in the migration of many artisans as laborers to work in factories.
Except for agricultural laborers nobody could eventually stay in villages. The British rule turned the once prosperous villages into poverty stricken huts.
Gandhiji brought in the Swadeshi Movement to ban foreign goods and encourage Indian goods. In his programme of Rural Reconstruction he suggested the use of spinning, weaving, oil mongering, carpentry, cobbler, pottery, etc, to be revived.Iron and steel, jute and cotton industries were established with the help of modern technique of production before independence.
Industrialization has been given more importance after independence in different Five Year Plans. By the end of the First Plan, there were a total of six boards, i.e., All India Handloom Board, All India Handicrafts Board, All India Khadi and Village Industries Board, Small-Scale Industries Board, Coir Board and Central Silk Board, established, thus, covering the entire field of small-scale and cottage industries.
May (This essay is derived from a keynote at Xtech.) Startups happen in clusters. There are a lot of them in Silicon Valley and Boston, and few in Chicago or Miami.
Importance of small scale industries. Employment – in , lakh persons were employed in small scale industries.
These industries and mainly based on labour intensive technology and generate more employment. Hence, keeping in view the capital deficiency in India and unemployment problems, small scale industries have special significance. Essay No. Pollution.
The word pollution has been derived from the Latin word pollution, which means to make dirty. Pollution is the process of making the environment land water and air dirty by adding harmful substances to it.
The IELTS writing task 2 sample answer below has examiner comments and is band score 9. The topic of social media is common and this IELTS essay question was reported in the IELTS test.