This is posted here in identical form to the submitted thesis, for which I was awarded the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in
For example, those who work in professional or managerial occupations are much more likely to have employer-sponsored insurance than those working in construction, sales or farming. Similarly, those working in the manufacturing industry are more likely to have coverage than those employed in wholesale and retail trade.
Finally, those working for large companies are more likely to have coverage than those who are employed by smaller firms. There are a number of reasons why small employers are less likely to offer health insurance than larger employers.
Second, small employers frequently state that their employees have access to other forms of coverage e. Third, small business owners often argue that many of their employees would never acquire coverage anyway, since turnover rates are relatively high and there is usually a waiting period before benefits kick in for new employees.
As noted above, the central financing mechanism is employer-sponsored private health insurance, supplemented by an array of public insurance and subsidy programs designed to help cover those most likely to lack coverage through an employer in particular the poor and the elderly.
This section of the paper explores the historical development of the employment-based system of health insurance.
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In particular, it explains why the U. The institutional evolution of the American health care system is, perhaps, most fruitfully examined in relation to the institutional evolution of American capitalism.
For the history of health care provisioning reveals the myriad of ways in which the system has been shaped by developments within the broader political economy of American society. We therefore begin with an examination of the social, economic and political forces that laid the foundation for the emergence of the modern health care system.
The Failure of National Health Insurance Proposals Throughout the nineteenth century, there was scarcely a market for health insurance in the United States. Family members cared for one another within the home, and there was little reliance on the services of doctors or hospitals.
By the end of the nineteenth century, this was beginning to change. In individual households, sickness now interrupted the flow of income as well as the normal routine of domestic life, and it imposed unforeseen expenses for medical care.
In the economy as a whole, illness had an indirect cost in diminished production as well as a direct cost in medical expenditure Starr,p. Acute illnesses were increasingly treated at medical facilities as opposed to homes and hospitals became the centers for surgeries, X-rays and laboratories Thomasson, Along with these advances came an increase in the costs of treating illness and a desire for some form of social protection to replace the traditional relations embedded in the household economy of pre-industrial America.
In response to these and other developments, groups of social reformers arose in the early part of the twentieth century to champion the cause of compulsory national health insurance. The plan was to be financed by contributions from workers and their employers with additional support from general tax revenues.
The program was defended on the grounds of social justice and economic efficiency — the former because it spread the risks of financial ruin and the latter because it mitigated the social costs of illness.
However, the campaign got underway just as support for Progressivism, as a political force, was beginning to wane.Mar 1, If you are just beginning to learn about Chemtrails, the following Introductory article below will give you an overview of how this spraying program began in late and how the situation stood up to early The overhead spraying of chemtrails has continued unabated for over three years now.
Thankfully, the first article describes a method to physically break up chemtrails.
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This wide-ranging introduction to the short story tradition in the United States of America traces the genre from its beginnings in the early nineteenth century with Irving, Hawthorne and Poe via Fitzgerald, Hemingway and Faulkner to O'Connor and Carver/5. The history of the United States is the story of many different peoples who together compose the United States of America.
Since the first Europeans arrived in , millions of people from many different countries have entered the United States and made the country their new home. The Story of America: Essays on Origins [Jill Lepore] on caninariojana.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
In The Story of America, Harvard historian and New Yorker staff writer Jill Lepore investigates American origin stories--from John Smith's account of the founding of Jamestown in to Barack Obama's inaugural address--to show how American democracy is bound up with the history of Reviews: It serves as an introduction to aspects of American thought and history that are deeply interesting, even surprising, and that will, we hope, entice readers to want to read and learn more.
Many of the documents emphasize America’s uniqueness and contributions to the world, which is one way to view the American .