When comparing the health outcomes between non-Hispanic whites and minorities, the differences in inequality are substantial. For various and numerous health conditions, non-Hispanic blacks suffer disproportionately from disease, injury, death, and disability compared to non-Hispanic whites.
Statistical abstract of the United States: Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States. American Indians and Alaska natives in the United States. The data are clear: Compared to whites, for example, African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans have much lower family incomes and much higher rates of poverty; they are also much less likely to have college degrees.
In addition, African Americans and Native Americans have much higher infant mortality rates than whites: These comparisons obscure some differences within some of the groups just mentioned.
Similarly, among Asians, people with Chinese and Japanese backgrounds have fared better than those from Cambodia, Korea, and Vietnam. Asian Americans have higher family incomes than whites on the average. Compared to whites, Asian Americans have higher family incomes and are more likely to hold college degrees, but they also have a higher poverty rate.
Thus many Asian Americans do relatively well, while others fare relatively worse, as just noted. Even the overall success rate of Asian Americans obscures the fact that their occupations and incomes are often lower than would be expected from their educational attainment.
Explaining Racial and Ethnic Inequality Why do racial and ethnic inequality exist? In answering these questions, many people have some very strong opinions.
One long-standing explanation is that blacks and other people of color are biologically inferior: As discussed earlier, this racist view is no longer common today. However, whites historically used this belief to justify slavery, lynchings, the harsh treatment of Native Americans in the s, and lesser forms of discrimination.
Another explanation of racial and ethnic inequality focuses on supposed cultural deficiencies of African Americans and other people of color Murray, These deficiencies include a failure to value hard work and, for African Americans, a lack of strong family ties, and are said to account for the poverty and other problems facing these minorities.
If that is true, these scholars say, then the lack of success of other people of color stems from the failure of their own cultures to value these attributes. How accurate is the cultural deficiency argument?
Many social scientists find little or no evidence of cultural problems in minority communities and say that the belief in cultural deficiencies is an example of symbolic racism that blames the victim. Yet other social scientists, including those sympathetic to the structural problems facing people of color, believe that certain cultural problems do exist, but they are careful to say that these cultural problems arise out of the structural problems.
Thus even if cultural problems do exist, they should not obscure the fact that structural problems are responsible for the cultural ones. A third explanation for U. This view attributes racial and ethnic inequality to institutional and individual discrimination and a lack of opportunity in education and other spheres of life Feagin, Segregated housing, for example, prevents African Americans from escaping the inner city and from moving to areas with greater employment opportunities.
Employment discrimination keeps the salaries of people of color much lower than they would be otherwise. The schools that many children of color attend every day are typically overcrowded and underfunded.After thoroughly conducting research, one of the main causes that attributes to inequality in health and health care among racial and ethnic minorities is socioeconomic status.
Socioeconomic status is generally defined through a combination of income, education, and occupation statuses (APA). This is exacerbated by the over-representation of ethnic minorities in deprived areas, which have been associated with poorer infant and child health, chronic disease, and high mortality rates.
Transcript of Origins and Causes of Racial-Ethnic Inequality. Three conditions must be present for ethnic inequality to exist Ethnocentrism Competition (exploitation) Think contemporary social class inequality based on race-ethnicity Stratification Origins and Causes of Race-Ethnic Inequality Ethnic Stratification.
Statistics also give a picture of racial and ethnic inequality in the United States. We can begin to get a picture of this inequality by examining racial and ethnic differences in such life chances as income, education, and health.
The Sentencing Project notes that the Committee has specifically asked the U.S. government to address the racial disparities in its criminal justice system in paragraph 4 of its List of Issues. We welcome this opportunity to provide the Committee with an accurate portrait of the current racial disparity in the U.S.
criminal justice system.
Start studying Ethnic inequality. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. nearly 50% of African origin people and 1/3 of Afro-Caribbean groups are estimated to be poor Status inequality-status lies in hands of ethnic majority-difficult for minorities to compete equally for best jobs,housing.